Switches are electromechanical devices. The are used to control the path of current or energy flow. Power switches are used to turn on and off loads. The contacts should be robust and have immunity to sparking and corrosion. Switches for signals need to be gold plated for low contact resistance and within a sealed enclosure.
A Neon bulb should have a resistor is series to make a Neon Lamp. All specs in designer viewpoint.Read more ...
When you wish to Interface an Embedded System to your computer, you will need a Terminal Emulation Software to communicate with the device over the serial port. Now USB is the default port in most computers. Hence we have USB to serial Interfaces. Over this Interface Data and Firmware can be Transferred up and down.
Termite is an easy to use and easy to configure RS232 terminal. It uses an interface similar to that of "messenger" or "chat" programs, with a large window that contains all received data and an edit line for typing in strings to transmit.
Plug-in interface for pre-processing or alternative views of the data, logging received data to a file, adding a toolbar to Termite, and other functionality that you may think of.
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delabs Technologies is an online EE Resource centered around Electronics Engineering Technologies. The Focus is on Product Design, Instrumentation and Automation.
Electronic Engineering Companies. Like Test-Measurement, Semiconductors, Engineering/Manufacturing and Industrial Automation can Advertise in delabs to get valuable attention for their products and services.
delabs Circuits - Instrumentation and Industrial designs and Information.
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When you are trying to arrive at a complex Embedded Systems and Communications solution, You will think of a DSP. Now that computers and embedded devices are used in most electronic devices, DSP is a way you can process, transform, analyze and generate fast analog data, in Real Time.
Real Time ideally is instantaneous or in sync, in tandem. Not an Zepto Second lost. But in the real world many analog inputs or result outputs can be processed a lot slower. So it is more like, How 'real time' you want, how cost-effective a real-time solution can be provided. If the analog input is slow and the system inertia is high and the user response time is limited by his persistence of vision, you need to make a system just a bit faster, even Microseconds delay may be fine. In yet another case it may be pico seconds.
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"Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."
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An Embedded Microcontroller or DSP system is made of Chips, Circuits and Firmware. The digital voltage levels, speed, bus width, fan out, power consumption are some factors that a designer has to keep in mind. As portable and wireless gadgets are becoming more popular, RF, Ethernet and Energy Efficient Design aspects should be studied. Power electronics and Analog Circuits knowledge is used around the system, all this is integrated to make an instrument, equipment or gadget.
Amps-n-Volts eMag Near 2001 i started sharing my learning and experience in Electronics Engineering on Blogs and Newsletters. One of the Successful eMag and electronic email magazine ran for five years. I lost interest later in the email mag, and this magazine just morphed into a dozen or more Tech Blogs that run today.
From the feedback i got, i am happy to sense that it has helped engineers and enthusiasts worldwide in Electronic Product Design. These blogs contain most of the Magazine - Schematics of delabs - Soldermans Basics - Circuits Faq
My knowledge is limited to my experience, observation, perception, learning and beliefs, but i have to express my views freely. These posts are mirrored in design devices.
Some Technical Points
- Before you open a PC remove power, telephone modem and LAN cables else finger and screwdriver in wrong place can zap chips.
- The products that survive the infant mortality time of say first six months will last quite long.
- NTSC is like 320 x 240 pixels, which is TV, which is lower than your computer's 800 x 600.
- When a microwave oven is turned on, a big spike is caused in the power line due to heavy inrush current on start up, Even pumps and motors cause such short time surges. This causes tripping of electrical protection circuits.
- When a tree branch falls on the high voltage overhead electrical lines, they spark violently and supply trips.
- Big or tall trucks go in small roads they may snap all low level cable or telephone wires on their way.
- Do you need to turn on many equipments-machines all at once? do it one after an other sequentially or use a timer for delays. This is because at peak power demand time, turning on all can cause your fuse to blow or worse.
- A battery that can be charged is best charged in CC constant current and CV constant voltage modes, that means both current and voltage have to be limited. When a battery is deep discharged many times it will age fast, and an empty battery will take huge currents so limit current. overcharging a battery will killit. After a voltage level is reached it should only trickle charge in mA and a battery has to be cut off on overload or before deep discharge
- The Lead acid battery breathes a lot, so keep them in a well ventilated open space but rain proof. Use sealed maintenance free battery when possible, these are safer.
- Teflon tape can be used to make leak proof pneumatic or hydraulic connections if junctions are leaking.
- The current thru a 3mm or 5mm LED (light emitting diode) should not exceed 20mA, 15mA is quite good.
- In a circuit swap all PNP and NPN , reverse all diodes and el-caps, reverse the supplies and input polarities, most of the circuit may still work like they did before.
- A sharp bend in a PCB track is a huge inductance (say 1nH ) when it comes to RF. it may radiate or reflect, it may even act like an antenna and pick up RF from the SMPS, Motor or Cellphones nearby.
- Persistence of vison around 16 frames a second (60mS) hence very fast events not seen .
Some of these points may be repeated and some not relevant in the present technical engineering scenario. As issues may have been set right, years back.
- Design Notes - Analog and Opamps - 01
- Design Notes - Power Electronics - 02
- Design Notes - Power Electronics - 03
- Design Notes - Schematic and PCB - 04
- Design Notes - Components Selection - 05
- Design Notes - Analog Basics - 06
- Design Notes - Product Development - 07
Analog Product Design Article Count: 2
Most of my early life as a R&D Engineer, i have been in Analog. Here are design aspects of circuits using Op-amps and Comparators. Discrete Semiconductor Circuit design like using Transistors and Diodes. RLC parts. The related blog is my delabs Schematics.
Electronic Design Article Count: 4
Things related to Electronic Design in all its aspects. That includes the prototyping, mechanical, electrical and PCB. Product Safety, EMI-RFI, Reliability and Robustness. The related blog is here Design Gopher
Embedded Systems Article Count: 7
This Section is related to Microcontrollers and Related Resources. Microcontroller, SOC, FPGA, ASIC. From 80C31 to the Latest ARM chips will be the scope of this section. The related blog is here Hyper Embedded
delabs Technologies Article Count: 1
Product Design - Industrial Automation and Instrumentation. delabs Technologies uses the brand names delabs and dapj in its Web Services and Resource Sites. These together form an Electronics Informatics and Product Design Technologies Web Consultatory. Updates are Here delabs SmartView.
Power Electronics Article Count: 2
The design of Power Supplies, DC to DC and AC to DC Convertors, SMPS, High Voltage and High Current equipment. Mosfets, Thyristor, Schottky Diodes, Ferrite Magnetics and Chokes are the various components used. Power Electronics qt delabs.
- MC7800 MC7900 1 Amp Voltage Regulators
- Function Generator using the CA3140
- Design Notes of delabs
- Product Safety and Ergonomics
- Switches in Electronics
- Power Quality and Clean Energy
- Accelerometers and Gyroscopes
- USB Serial Interface
- PIC Microcontroller
- Serial Port and Terminal Emulation
- SoC the System on Chip and IP
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